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الجمعة، 23 ديسمبر 2016

Pharaonic era

Civilization began in Egypt since prehistoric times by about a hundred thousand years, and considered
The ancient Egyptians, since the late Paleolithic (10 thousand years ago
BC) as a stand-alone nation and called themselves the people or the people of Egypt
Mmketan and originated in Egypt, one in the north with its capital Bhutto in the West Delta
The motto of papyrus and worshiped God Ho'rouramzehe snake and the other in the south with its capital
Cape or betray current and logo lotus and worshiped God six
Several attempts have been made in the prehistoric age to unite the kingdoms of the north and south
Even King Menes succeeded in about 3200 BC in the unification of north and south, and established
Capital of the United State at the head of the Delta and called (White Castle), which started
Later known as the (Memphis) or (Memphis), establishing the first state in history
It shows her political capital as a unit by the central government and administrative apparatus of the army and police
And education and spend


Old Kingdom in 2980 BC. M .- 2475 BC. M
Egyptian civilization evolved and crystallized the principles of the central government, and witnessed this era
Comprehensive state renaissance in various aspects of life, where he reached the Egyptians to write
Hieroglyphic any (holy inscription), and the Kings interested in securing the country's borders
The active trade movement between Egypt and Sudan. Egypt and received a glorious era in
History, known as the era of builders of the Pyramids, and this era saw the construction of the first pyramid (Pyramid
Saqqara), with the development of agriculture, industry, Egyptians used the first rivers to transport fleet
Their products. And it amounted to a great maritime affair and became the organization, like craft
Established the character made famous by ancient Egypt

The average age of the state in 2160 BC, 1580 BC .-
Care of the kings of the State Central projects most beneficial to the people flourished agriculture
And developed handicrafts, produced Egyptian artists and engineers heritage
Fantastic spread in Luxor, Fayoum, Ain Shams. As well as art and literature flourished in this
Era, but the end of the rule of this country witnessed the Hyksos invasion and occupation of Egypt


The era of the modern state in 1580 BC. --1 150 BC
Having been to the King Ahmose I eliminate the Hyksos and expelled outside the borders of Egypt
East security and stability returned to the corners of the country. Egypt began a new era
It is the era of the modern state, Egypt and realized the importance of military force to protect the country,
It was established with a strong army to form a great empire stretched from the Euphrates River to the east
The fourth cataract of the Nile River in the south. Egypt became a superpower, and became so
A great empire sprawling and oldest empire in history. I've won
Kings and queens of the Twelfth Dynasty international reputation in the fields of politics and war
And culture, civilization and religion .. "Ahmose" liberation hero .. "Amenhotep I"
The just passed a law to prevent forced labor and develop fair standards for wages
And incentives .. "Thutmose I" warrior who expanded the Egyptian border north and south
And the dissemination of education and the expansion of the open mines and mining industry .. "Thutmose II"
Dude and "Thutmose III" Emperor His military genius and inimitable first
Great Light in the history of the world .. and "Thutmose IV," the diplomat, who was the first
Write down of interest and registration of international treaties .. and "Amenhotep III," the richest king in
The ancient world and who opened the school "houses of life" to spread education and the arts
Fine and Applied .. and "Akhenaten," the first monotheists and the first king in the history of
Humanitarian Club in the oneness of God, the Creator of everything .. and "Tutankhamun," which won
Fame in the modern world

Among the most famous queens of this family, for example, the Queen "Ahhotep" King's wife
"Seqenenre," The Queen "Ahmose Nefertari" wife Ahmose I, and Queen "T" girl
People and wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaten and Queen "Nefertiti" wife
"Akhenaten" great "Hatshepsut" and the queen, who ruled Egypt for nearly twenty years.
Egypt reached the highest peak in the outdated civilization, architecture and international trade terms
Commercial and marine scientific mission sent to the Puntland also constructed one of the
The greatest architectural monuments and most splendor and grandeur of a temple "Bahari" Ali
The western shore of the Nile in the face of the Luxor temple is unique in its design and has no
Seen between the old temples of the whole world

We also saw this era of Akhenaten religious revolution, calling for the worship of one God
And the symbol of a sun disk and established a new capital of the country and called it "Akhetaten." And exposed
Egypt since the dynasty 21-28 to occupy all of the Assyrians in 670 BC and then
Persians even ended the rule of the Pharaohs with family 30 and older to enter Egypt Alexander

Famous for the ancient Egyptian civilization, such as the civilization of Mesopotamia, as
The oldest civilizations in history, it has been doing sophisticated social systems
Made them more advanced countries of that time, we have several factors contributed to the progress and development
This civilization, such as writing the discovery and use in the third millennium BC
And their investment of the Nile water, geographical strength of that guaranteed them their borders
Natural risk of external invasion

 ابو الهول


But this was a civilized society governed by the Pharaohs dynasty, was control system
Outright disbelief, identified as the Pharaonic regime, as the Koran tells us
Karim, has ballooned Pharaohs delusion, and denied God and turned their backs on him, but
In the end they did not benefit them and prevented them their strength and their civilization great military superiority in
The face of destruction.

Education and writing
It was independent in ancient Egypt and the limited writing and reading between the percentage of
A small ruling elite or clerks in the administrative apparatus. The children of the family
Property and the ruling elite learn to minors. The rest of the people were learning
In schools or temples Mounzul. The education of girls was confined to writing
And reading at home. And the teachers were strict and they used hitting .

Confirm the effects of the Egyptians proficiency in writing and literature and shows that clear as he left
Egyptians effects, will not forget the Egyptians preferred to date on the humanity in
The invention of writing, which he called the Greeks "calligraphy hieroglyph" consists alphabet
Hieroglyphs of 24 characters .. The ancient Egyptians used black ink or
Red writing on papyrus. Egyptians excelled in religious literature
Eating religious beliefs and theories of life and the mysteries of the universe and mythology
The various gods and prayers and songs are the oldest examples of religious literature "Texts
Pyramids "and the Book of the Dead


Ancient Egyptian writer also excelled at writing stories and keen to be the word
To convey wisdom and ethics tool Ancient Egyptians were bent on narrating their heritage
Proverbs and to chant their festivals and celebrations and traditions
Thus, the Egyptians were keen from the peoples of the world to record and record their history
And the events that they have suffered in their lives and this step civilized afternoon Aladedmn
Writers and the wise and educated Egyptians who have left us works indicated the extent of
Promoted thought and culture in Egypt

Egyptian music and I love singing, music, Egyptians accept and used in
Educating young people in the public and private celebrations, especially in the army, as well as
Used in prayers and burial of the dead
The Egyptians knew the Old Kingdom woodwind and stringed instruments such as
"Fugitive" (name Pharaonic Tipute) and invented patterns and shapes from machines that
Lead different rhythms and tones, and they have developed through the stages of their history
the old


The ancient Egyptians knew beautification ornaments and characterized by high precision technical
And the beauty of forming and used decorative elements from nature such as bulrush
The palm trees and lotus flowers as they used precious stones, women and keen in
Special attention to Bzintha used kohl, bracelets, rings and contracts
And necklaces, henna

There were different clothes in Pharaonic Egypt from class to another, and were made of
Soft linen or imported from ancient Syria silk fabrics,
The clothes vary depending on events

Religious beliefs
Greek historian Herodotus says that the ancient Egyptians were more people Toka
In the world of that time, but that their religion was not the religion of truth, but they were heathens,
And they continued to cling to their religion because of the uncompromising deviant.
The ancient Egyptians are very influenced by the natural environment in which they lived
Where, have prevented the geographical nature of their country from them any external attack, it was Egypt
Surrounded by deserts, mountains and the sea from all sides, were not only possible attacks
Of two roads only, and it is possible to control them easily, thanks to the nature
Geographical Egypt have remained isolated from the outside world, but this time with isolation
It turned into bigotry, and thus became the Egyptians a special look impervious to any
Change, closed for any enlightenment, they are people who do not see only their religion legally living,
And it became the religion of their fathers, which reminded him of the most precious Koran Maldihm.

This moderated by Pharaoh and his court backs to Moses and Aaron when he called them to the religion of truth:
God said Taalyqaloa
Ojitna to Tfattna what we found our fathers and be
As for pride in the earth and we are also going to put faith
) (Yunus: 78)

The religion of the ancient Egyptians divided into two parts: an official department specializes in the state and the Department of
Last Looking at people's beliefs about life after death, which provides for religious belief
For the state that the Pharaoh being sacred, a reflection of the gods on earth to live
Justice and protects the people.
The beliefs that have spread among the people in a very complicated and the items in
Religious that are inconsistent with the official religion of the state repealed the provisions of the pharaohs, the
Religion mainly on the belief many gods, and often portray these
The gods in the form of a human body carries the head of an animal, but it is also possible that
We meet local traditions vary from region to region.
Form of life after death, the bulk of the Egyptian beliefs, they believe that
Spirit resume life after the body dies, and according to this belief: Bear Angels
Spirits of the dead to God, the judge, and to his forty-two judges, put
Balance in the middle and weighed the heart of the Spirit in the balance, those who transferred
Carrying merits more beautiful place to live in happiness, while those who are overwhelmed
Verslon sins to a place where taste different kinds of torture, there are tortured to
Forever by a monster named "eat the dead."

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